Yeşilçemen Sokak, No: 12/219 Polat Towers Fulya/Dikilitaş İSTANBUL
The RADDAR UAS is a complete UAS solution. It is designed and developed for the most challenging everyday requirements. The system specifications are identified by compiling the demands from customers on a daily basis. It's an independent and stand-alone mobile solution. It comes with all hardware and software necessary to operate the system.
Operator trainings are done in theory and on the field. Assessment of training is done by written exam and application and only successful trainees are certified to operate the systems.
Payloads suitable to customer preference and application concept are integrated to the systems by RADDAR R&D teams and prepared for operation. End-users benefit from the freedom of defining and configuring the system to their mission specifications, without having to deal with integration related issues and get the turn-key solution they are asking for. As demands change, the system is upgraded constantly and newer products are derived. It is a base system with all fundamental features and has the flexibility to be fine tuned to customer requirements. RADDAR uses its in-house developed and unique software packages both on the Autopilot and on the GCS to ensure this.
The RADDAR UASs include fully autonomous UAVs. Take-oﬀ/Landing method can be runway, catapult launched or vertical using SLT. It is suggested that a System includes 3 identical UAVs to be able to perform operations without delays. The first two UAVs are the active ones. They carry out missions and substitute each other in cases where one is in
after-flight maintenance or has minor repairs to be done. The third UAV is considered as backup and replaces an active UAV, in case of a factory level or long lead time repair is required.
The RADDAR UAS Systems utilize in-house developed PilotUS autopilot and operate on a waypoint based navigation system, augmented with RTK GPS used as diﬀerential GPS for enhanced accuracy.
Operators define missions on a map using the Ground Control Station (GCS). Command and control link (C2-datalink) operates at 900 MHz and the video link at S Band.
The GCS contains an R/C control option to provide an alternate and backup aircraft control system for the pilot during operations or emergencies. The tail FPV stream ensures easy control even beyond visual range of the operator.
GCS also incorporates and controls a tracking directed antenna system to extend ranges of C2-data and Video transmissions.
RADDAR UASs prioritize safety. First level of security is provided by redundant flight critical electronics for Airspeed, Barometer, IMU, GPS and Compass as well as external pitots. The next level is provided by backup systems for energy (alternator and reserve battery), GPS (GLONASS, Beidou), flight control (FPV and R/C), C2-Datalink (optional additional link) on UAVs and GCS backup computers. At the last level of security, systems are equipped with software based autonomous features like return-to-home, emergency land, geofence etc.
The CGT45-SLT is a 4,5 m wingspan T-Tail UAV. It uses electric powered motors for take-oﬀ and landing and does not require a runway or catapult.
The CGT45-SLT can take oﬀ from a table and land on a 5x5 m surface with high accuracy.
It is a composite airframe with 4 kg payload capacity, powered by a 70cc petrol engine. The consumption on an average mission is 1.3 l/h, which enables a safe endurance of 6 hours.
At the basic setup, CGT45-SLT uses 3 separate communication systems for datalink, videolink, and the FPV. Datalink system operates at 900-922 MHz, FPV at 1.2 GHz, and videolink at 2.4 GHz. The video-link uses IP communication and 128 bit SSL encryption in order to secure the data transferred. Video and data may be broadcasted if desired. The CGT45-SLT has an 50 kg MTOW (including payload). It can be operated by only two people. Using PilotUS autopilot, flight missions are carried out fully autonomous.
CGT45-SLT comes with 200W or 350 W generator build in. The generator produces energy suﬃcient for almost all applications of this size. It also has a backup battery that ensures a safe flight for 60 minutes in case of an alternator failure The UAV uses PilotUs autopilot which is a double redundant, high-tech autopilot that has all requested safety functions build in. PilotUs is 100% compatible with RADDAR GCS and can be configured to meet customer specific requirements.
CGT45-RW is equipped with RADDAR AvionicsMini. The AvionicsMini packs the power management, flight control and avionic components connector interface in a single unit. All servos, EFI module, communication links, GPS antennas, pitot tubes etc. are connected to this single unit, making maintenance and failure detection easier.
The AvionicsMini accepts a single 7-17 V DC input and regulates it to provide power to some of the components (e.g. servos). Inside the box, signal from the Autopilot (e.g. PWM) and appropriate power (e.g. 5V) is combined to a single connector. All electronic boards are designed and the box is assembled in-house and can be configured to customer specific requirements. PilotUS Autopilot is double redundant. All sensors (e.g. IMU, barometer, digital compass, GPS, and air speed) come in couples. It is a complete flight control system that operates the aircraft from take-oﬀ to landing. PilotUS manages communication with the GCS, waypoint navigation, flight and platform restrictions as well as emergency situations. Flight and mission parameters as well as waypoints are stored on-board and can be retrieved from the UAV at any time. PilotUS controls switches on the UAV to turnoﬀ-on devices like transponders, flashlights, retract mechanisms etc. It is fully compatible with the RADDAR GCS and any command given from the GCS can be applied on the UAV easily. PilotUS allows emergency protocols for GPS-loss, comm-loss and engine failure to be defined before and during the flight and applies those protocols in case. All data is transferred to the GCS at realtime. It communicates with systems that provide data like the EFI System of the engine and fuel sensor, packs the data and sends it to the GCS using the communication module that is connected to it. AvionicsMini also implements CAN connectivity that enables it to communicate and control up to 127 additional CAN nodes. Any device with a CAN port can easily be connected to the System and controlled or used by PilotUS.
Communication systems in RADDAR UAS are independent and abstract. The UAS system can be easily configured to use any modem and antenna as long as it provides the necessary output. This enables RADDAR UASs to be configured for customer’s specific range requirements. Distinct UAS Systems have been tested and configured to operate at ranges from 20 to 150 km.
RADDAR Systems can use discrete or unified modems for video and data communication. System structure depends on customer requirements and budget. Frequencies from 433MHz up to 14.5GHz can be used and is up to customers to define. Alternatives and trade-oﬀs are defined and discussed with customers, to be able to meet the budgetary restrictions and performance requirements as well as security and legal issues (e.g. Frequency Allocation) at the same time.
The CGT45-SLT comes with a 70cc gasoline engine. It has Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) that enables operations up to 18.000 feet. The average fuel consumption is 1.3 l/h. The Engine has a 200W or 350 Watt generator integrated. All power required for system operations and payloads are produced during flight. The system uses a battery as backup that can provide the energy required for basic flight to up to 60 minutes, to enable safe return to base and landing in case of engine or generator failure. The CGT45 has a fuel tank with 8 L capacity. It can be easily filled or drained through a fuel line connector without any disassembly. The fuel tank has shake preventers, fuel pump and a header tank to ensure safe supply of fuel to the system.
CGT45-RW is the runway takeoﬀ and landing version of the CGT45-SLT. It can take-oﬀ and land fully autonomous on a 500m runway at up to 15 Knot side wind with 3-5 m accuracy. Since it uses the same hardware and electronics as the CGT45-SLT, due to the trade-oﬀ of the SLT system with the landing gears, this version has up to 8 kg payload capacity, excluding Fuel (11L), electronics, datalink and video-link and minimum 10 hours of endurance. The CGT45-RW is optimal for long duration missions due to its endurance and day/night flight capability. The excess 4 kg payload capacity to the SLT version, can be used to carry extra fuel for added 4 hours of endurance.
The Ground Control Station is developed for easy flight control and monitoring, as well as visual reception and realtime image recording during the flight.It is compatible with all type ’s of RADDAR UAVs (e.g. CGT-45 SLT, CGT-45 RW, CNG-V etc.). This reduces the costs and enables the user to use the same GCS for diﬀerent type of missions (VTOL ISR, Runway ISR, Target Practice etc.).
Depending on customer requirements, the GCS software can be customized and the required changes are synchronized with the autopilot software (PilotUS). Thanks to our customization ability, all type of payloads, mission types, and maneuvers can be added to the system.
The GCS provides the operator interface on the ground. In ideal conditions, the GCS is constructed to consist of three main parts that are linked together trough an ethernet switch.
1. The Flight and Mission Control Software & Hardware (MCS-Mission Control System)
2. The Payload Control Software& Hardware (PCS-Payload Control System)
3. The Communication System (CS).
The MCS is operated by the GCO (Ground Control Operator). It usually consists of 2 screens for the GCS related Windows. The GCO is responsible for all flight and mission related issues including pre-flight checks, mission definition, mission, flight reports and emergency protocols. It is the GCO’s responsibility to perform a flight without any problems.
The MCS provides the GCO with all necessary information to perform its duties without having to rely on any external help. The GCO can monitor all flight related data like True and Indicated Airspeed, Ground Speed, Plane position, Virtual Horizon, Fuel and battery status, Direction, Altitude and Vario, Wind Speed and direction and many more on the gauges.
UAV position and mission waypoints show on the mission screen on a 3D map including elevation data.
The MCS also provides an interface to set-up and calibrate all the sensors on the plane as well as the tracking system of the CS.
The PCS is operated bay the Payload Operator (PO). In case the payload is a gimbal for example, the PO calibrates and controls the gimbal, directs it to a direction, geolocks to a target position, tracks targets, switches between IR and EO sensors, records the video and performs all operations required to operate the gimbal.
The PO may use distinct software for any type of payloads and will not cause any disturbance to the GCO.
The Communication System (CS) consists of a pan-tilt pedestal system with antennas at the desired gain (2 dBi, 10 dBi, 30 dBi) and frequencies (900-922MHz, 2.4 GHz, 1.3 GHz, 4.5 GHz)
The Video Receiver is the ground side of the video link. It can be a one-way or bi-directional link receiving the video signal from the aircraft to the ground. It demodulates, decrypts and streams the video to the PCS through the GCS internal network. One function of the CS is to track the UAV. Pointing antennas at the UAV increases signal quality and range dramatically. With the information gathered from the MCS, the CS commands and points the ground antennas for video and C2 to the air vehicle at any given time automatically.
The RADDAR GCS comes with a Simulator mode option which is perfect to train GCO’s without getting into any risk. The Simulator mode uses X-Plane to simulate the flight. RADDAR UAV’s are defined in XPlane according to their size, shape, type and thrust. The PilotUS Software has a desktop version that establishes a bilateral connection with X-Plane. The trainer or trainee can define flight conditions, weather, sidewind etc. on X-Plane. The GCO sees the PilotUS Desktop software as a new plane and connects to it. The operator then defines a mission and uploads it to the plane as usual. Once the GCO starts a mission, all commands to flight surfaces such as ailerons, elevators, rudder etc. and thrust are transmitted from PilotUS to the simulated plane in X-Plane. X-Plane applies these commands and returns the eﬀects in the preset conditions on the UAV to the PilotUS as sensory readings. This enables a software-in-the-loop simulation of the missions with high accuracy. To simulate emergency conditions, the trainer or trainee stops the engine, disables GPS or increases wind speed and observes how the system or trainee behaves.
RADDAR UAV’s may be used with several Payloads. The integration of payloads to UAV’s are done by RADDAR R&D teams. Any update or change to the PCS is done in behalf of the customer and a turn-key solution is deployed. RADDAR systems use in-house developed and produced retract mechanisms which are controlled over CAN BUS. UAV Vision’s CM100 and 160 gimbals have been used very frequently for ISR purposes. The small form factor and very competitive prices have been a main factor. If an IR sensor with less than 9 Hz frame rate is acquired the gimbals are ITAR free. Further information on UAV Vision Gimbals can be found at http://www.uavvision.com/
Using UAV’s for ISR is probably the most common application at the moment. The RADDAR UAV’s long endurance and high operating altitude as well as high payload capacity makes it a very useful tool for ISR. The main government / public usage of ISR would be in:
CGT45 has solid features for border patrolling. For safety reasons, all border area should be under surveillance 24/7. The handoﬀ capability of RADDAR UAS Systems and the possibility to have multiple UAS on air at the same time contributes to this requirement.
UAV’s control can be transferred between GCSs (Handoﬀ-Handover) to cover a wider area without investing in long-range systems. Speeds of 90km/h enables the system to patrol a 900 km border in one flight (CGT-45 RW). This enables surveillance with minimum amount of UAVs.
The small size and low noise of the CGT45 series enables them to fly at low AGL altitudes (e.g. 900 feet) without being detected and avoid clouds and the EFI engine enables to fly at higher altitudes (e.g. 18.000 feet) for larger view if necessary.
It's expected from institutions and related departments to have the infrastructure to do S&R quick and eﬃcient. S&R is a job where minutes, even seconds matter. Having an extra eye on air, equipped with specific payload that can stay on air 4-5 times as long as a helicopter without refueling and is not aﬀected from weather conditions that much is a great option to use on times of crisis.
All payload developers have to test their payload before putting it out on the market. Some tests are done on the ground but actual performance of the payload will only be seen on real applications. This will sometimes include the integration process. The CGT45 series payload capacity enables it to carry most of the small size electronics and models of R&D projects produced for proof of concept. RADDAR R&D team provides all services requested for integration and test flying new payloads.
For safe missions and long life cycle of the UAV, maintenances are crucial. GCS operator and technicians are trained for all subjects and are able to do most of the maintenance on site. The system is composed of modules that can easily be acquired, stocked and changed if desired. A very thorough training is given to the crews. Note that, some maintenance services may be done in manufacturer’s facilities.
In order to operate CGT45-RW, our customers are trained. A total of three courses are included for up to 4 weeks* of training; GCO Training, Maintenance Training and PO Training. Training sessions may take place in either customer’s or manufacturer’s facilities.*Depending on personnel trained, training duration may diﬀer.